Over the past two major releases firewalld has seen vast improvements to its testsuite. This post will discuss how to run the testsuite, how to debug a failure, and finally we’ll go through an exercise of adding a new test case. The main target is for current and future contributors to firewalld. However, since firewalld’s testsuite utilizes autotest some of the knowledge gained here may also carry over to other projects.
Running the testsuite
Running the testsuite is very simple. To start build the code just as you would if installing from source.
$ git clone https://github.com/firewalld/firewalld $ cd firewalld $ ./autogen.sh $ ./configure $ make
Then run the testsuite using the
check make target. This needs to be run as
# make check
These tests are non-destructive to the host running them and there is no need to stop the host’s running firewalld instance. They are run inside of network namespaces (containers) which allows numerous benefits; reliability, non-destructive to the host, and they can be run in parallel.
At the time of writing firewalld has 112 test groups - most of which include multiple tests. As such, the testsuite takes a long time to run. The good news is you can speed things up by running them in parallel.
To run test groups in parallel pass
-j4 to autotest via the
# make check TESTSUITEFLAGS="-j4"
Running the testsuite against the host installed firewalld
Firewalld’s testsuite also provides an
installcheck make target. This is
useful for running tests against the hosts installed version of firewalld.
check target runs against the executables built in the source tree.
This is very important for development as it allows you to run a newer
testsuite against an older version of firewalld. As we’ll find later on in this
post, this can be used to leverage test driven development.
To run the testsuite against the installed firewalld
# make installcheck
Debugging a failed test case
Inevitably a test will fail. Whether it’s a bug in firewalld, a permission issue, or a compatibility issue, you’ll have to debug the problem. There are a couple of ways to inspect a failure. The most straight forward way is to view the testsuite log.
To view the testsuite log for failed test number 42
# vi ./src/tests/testsuite.dir/042/testsuite.log
Alternatively, you can enable the verbose flag to cause the testsuite to dump to standard output.
# make check TESTSUITEFLAGS="42 -v"
To enable firewalld’s debug output, you can use the
# make check TESTSUITEFLAGS="42 -v -d"
The test numbers passed to
TESTSUITEFLAGS are very flexible. It will accept
individual numbers or ranges.
For example this is also valid
# make check TESTSUITEFLAGS="42 1-5 110 13-14 17"
Writing a new test case
In this example we’ll follow a test driven development style to fix a real
world firewalld bug. We’ll be using Red Hat bugzilla 1404076 for this
exercise. This bug occurs when a port range is opened using the
--query-port fails to return the expected result if querying a
single port within the range.
Basic test layout
All of the tests follow the same basic layout. Since this is a new test case in
response to an existing bug we’ll add it to the set of regression tests in
At the absolute minimum your new test should look like this
FWD_START_TEST([test description]) ... FWD_CHECK([some command]) ... FWD_END_TEST
The testsuite makes heavy use of m4 macros (
etc.) to simplify test creation. m4 is a macro language which autotest uses to
generate the testsuite script.
A consequence of the macro magic is most tests will be run multiple times. Once for each firewall backend; nftables and iptables. This ensures that both backends are tested equally.
The new test case
We start by creating a new test that reproduces the issue from the bugzilla report.
Here is our new test case
FWD_START_TEST([query single port added with range]) dnl add a set of ports by range, then query a specific port inside that range. FWD_CHECK([-q --add-port=8080-8090/tcp]) FWD_CHECK([-q --query-port=8085/tcp]) FWD_CHECK([-q --query-port=webcache/tcp]) dnl named port FWD_CHECK([-q --query-port=8091/tcp], 1) dnl negative test FWD_CHECK([-q --query-port=8085/udp], 1) dnl negative test dnl same thing, but for permanent configuration. FWD_CHECK([-q --permanent --add-port=8080-8090/tcp]) FWD_CHECK([-q --permanent --query-port=8085/tcp]) FWD_CHECK([-q --permanent --query-port=webcache/tcp]) dnl named port FWD_CHECK([-q --permanent --query-port=8091/tcp], 1) dnl negative test FWD_CHECK([-q --permanent --query-port=8085/udp], 1) dnl negative test FWD_END_TEST
dnl is m4’s way of starting a comment.
This test is fairly exhaustive by including negative tests and named ports. This gives us even more confidence in our code changes.
To attach the new test case to the testsuite we need to append the new test to
$ vi src/tests/regression.at [...] m4_include([regression/rhbz1404076.at])
This new test case can be found upstream on github.
The commit is
3fb707228ced ("tests/regression: add coverage for rhbz 1404076").
Verifying the new test reproduces the issue
Now that the test has been added you can verify it reproduces the issue by
running it against the host’s firewalld using the
installcheck make target.
# make installcheck [...] regression (nftables) [...] 67: query single port added with range FAILED (rhbz1404076.at:5) [...] regression (iptables) [..] 110: query single port added with range FAILED (rhbz1404076.at:5)
Here we see the test case failed as expected for both firewall backends.
Fix the bug
The next step is to make code changes to fix the bug. This is out of scope for
this post, but for those interested the fix can be found on github.
The commit is
2925de324443 ("ports: allow querying a single added by range").
Verify the fix against the in-tree source code
Now that the test case has been written and code changes have been made we can
run the test case again, but this time against the source tree version. This
will verify our code changes fix the bug. Be sure to use the
target this time.
# make check TESTSUITEFLAGS="67 110"
Once your new test case passes you should run the whole testsuite again to verify you didn’t introduce a regression.
# make check
If that was successful, then you’re ready to submit your changes upstream with a pull request! Once your pull request is submitted the testsuite will automatically be run again by travis-ci against multiple versions of python.
This post has shown how easy it is to get started with the firewalld testsuite. We hope it will encourage contributions from others while simultaneously improving firewalld’s quality. Additionally we hope it turns some users into active contributors!